Home page


About Albert Lyter

Video Densitometer

Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC)

Scanning Electron Microscope

Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy

Atomic Force Microscopy

X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy


Federal Forensic Associates, Inc.

X-ray Photoelectron Spectrometer

X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy is an atomic spectroscopy which is capable of elemental and molecular information.  It is used for the characterization of toner materials and can give information regarding the age of xerographically produced documents.

The XPS provides chemical state information for compound identification. Its features include:

  • Dual Mg/Al anode source Auger and photoelectron separation
  • Secondary electron imaging
  • Argon Ion gun for surface cleaning and depth profiles (Scanning Auger Microscopy)
  • Quadrapole SIMS analysis by Cesium or Oxygen beam


  • Beam Energy for XPS source anode: 12kV; 14mA; spot size 1 mm
  • XPS Energy Analyzer (MAC 2): 0.3 - 4.0 eV resolution, constant; acceptance solid angle 6% of 2(pi)
  • Electron Gun
  • Argon Ion Gun
  • Auger Analyzer
  • Cesium Source
  • Duo Source (Currently Oxygen: O2+ or O-)
  • Quadrapole SIMS Analyzer
  • Data output to printer, ASCII file or Text

Specimen Considerations

  • Vacuum compatible to UHV conditions
  • Specimen size 1X1 cm

Contact Federal Forensic Associates